Volume 10, Issue 2 (March 2008) 10, 298–306; 10.1111/j.1745-7262.2008.00331.x
Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus
Nirmal K Lohiya, Boomi Manivannan, Shipra Goyal and Abdul S Ansari
Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004, India
Correspondence: Prof. Nirmal K Lohiya, Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302004, India. Fax: +91-141-270-1809. E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 29 January 2007; Accepted 23 July 2007.
Aim: To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys.
Methods: The test substance was given p.o. to five monkeys at 50 mg/kg body weight/day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 3) received olive oil as vehicle. Sperm parameters as per World Health Organization standards, sperm functional tests, morphology of testis and epididymis, haematology, clinical biochemistry, serum testosterone and libido were evaluated. Following completion of 360 days treatment the animals were withdrawn from the treatment and the recovery pattern was assessed by semen analysis and sperm functional tests.
Results: Total inhibition of sperm motility was observed following 60 days of treatment that continued until 360 days study period. Sperm count, percent viability and percent normal spermatozoa showed a drastic decline following 30 days of treatment. Sperm morphology showed predominant mid piece abnormalities. Sperm functional tests scored in sterile range. Histology and ultrastructure of testis revealed vacuolization in the Sertoli cells and germ cells. Loss of cytoplasmic organelles was evident in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Histology and ultrastructure of epididymis of treated animals were comparable to those of control animals. Hematological and serum clinical parameters and testosterone levels fluctuated within the control range throughout the study period. Recovery was evident following 60-120 days of treatment withdrawal.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya shows contraceptive efficacy without adverse toxicity, mediated through inhibition of sperm motility.
Keywords: male contraception, Carica papaya seeds, sperm motility inhibition, testis, epididymis, langur monkeys
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