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Abstract

Volume 21, Issue 1 (January 2019) 21, 6–11; 10.4103/aja.aja_52_17

Current and emerging trends in prostate cancer immunotherapy

Adam Schatz, Badar M Mian

Division of Urology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12054, USA

Correspondence: Dr. BM Mian (mianb@mail.amc.edu)

Date of Web Publication 24-Nov-2017

Abstract

There have been a number of recent developments in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer which seek to exploit the hormonal axis. Still, the castration-resistant prostate cancer remains a major challenge since this is the lethal and incurable phenotype which results in tens of thousands of deaths every year. There has been emerging interest in utilizing anticancer immunotherapy in prostate cancer, especially since the development of sipuleucel-T. Several other prostate cancer therapeutic vaccines including autologous and allogeneic vaccines, as well as viral vector-based vaccines, have demonstrated promising results in early trials. The checkpoint inhibitors which have shown some dramatic results in other cancers are now being studied in advanced prostate cancer setting. Studies are examining the therapeutic effects for both CTLA-4 inhibitors and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. It appears that definitions and measurements of response used in cytotoxic therapies may not be valid in determining response to immunotherapy. Early reports suggest that combination therapies, either concurrent or sequential, may be needed to achieve the desired response against advanced prostate cancer.

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