Home  |   Archive  |   Online Submission  |   News & Events  |   Subscribe  |   APFA  |   Society  |   Contact Us  |   中文版
Search   
 
Journal

Ahead of print
Authors' Accepted
    Manuscripts
new!
Current Issue
Archive
Acknowledgments
Special Issues
Browse by Category

Manuscript Submission

Online Submission
Online Review
Instruction for Authors
Instruction for Reviewers
English Corner new!

About AJA

About AJA
Editorial Board
Contact Us
News

Resources & Services

Advertisement
Subscription
Email alert
Proceedings
Reprints

Download area

Copyright licence
EndNote style file
Manuscript word template
Guidance for AJA figures
    preparation (in English)

Guidance for AJA figures
    preparation (in Chinese)

Proof-reading for the
    authors

AJA Club (in English)
AJA Club (in Chinese)

 
Abstract

Volume 22, Issue 2 (March 2020) 22, 124–128; 10.4103/aja.aja_72_19

The embryology of persistent cloaca and urogenital sinus malformations

David F M Thomas

University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT, UK

Correspondence: Dr. DFM Thomas (d.f.m.thomas@leeds.ac.uk)

19-Jul-2019

Abstract

Cloacal malformations are characterized by the confluence of the lower urinary tract, the female reproductive tract, and the rectum to create a common channel with a single opening on the perineum. The presence of a cloaca is a normal phase of early human embryological development. Between the 4th and 7th weeks of gestation, the cloaca undergoes subdivision to form the hindgut and urogenital sinus. Failure of this process results in the congenital anomaly termed persistent cloaca (PC). The term urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS) is also used to describe this anomaly. The classic description of this process which is still cited in many standard textbooks dates from the 19th century. However, this has been increasingly called into question by the findings of studies using modern scientific methodology. Urogenital sinus anomalies are defined by the confluence of the urethra and vagina to form a common channel of varying length with a single perineal opening. In this condition, the anorectal canal opens separately on the perineum. The presence of a urogenital sinus represents a transient phase of the normal development of the lower genital tract in the female fetus. However, the form of urogenital sinus most commonly encountered in the developed world is a feature of disordered sexual differentiation and does not arise simply from the persistence of the anatomical structure which is a feature of normal fetal development.
    
    Keywords: cloaca; embryology; urogenital sinus

Full Text | PDF |

 
Browse:  139
 
Copyright 1999-2017  Shanghai Materia Medica, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.  All rights reserved