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Abstract

Volume 24, Issue 5 (September 2022) 24, 540–548; 10.4103/aja2021104

Mannose inhibits the growth of prostate cancer through a mitochondrial mechanism

Yu-Lin Deng1, Ren Liu1, Zhou-Da Cai2, Zhao-Dong Han3, Yuan-Fa Feng4, Shang-Hua Cai4, Qing-Biao Chen6, Jian-Guo Zhu5, Wei-De Zhong1,3

1 Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
2 Department of Andrology, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510180, China
3 Department of Urology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Clinical Molecular Medicine and Diagnostics, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510180, China
4 Urology Key Laboratory of Guangdong Province, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510230, China
5 Department of Urology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550002, China
6 Department of Urology Surgery, Affiliated Foshan Hospital of Southern Medical University, Foshan 528000, China

Correspondence: Dr. WD Zhong (zhongwd2009@live.cn) or Dr. JG Zhu (doctorzhujianguo@163.com)

Date of Submission 11-Jun-2021 Date of Acceptance 17-Nov-2021 Date of Web Publication 04-Feb-2022

Abstract

The limited treatment options for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) lead to the urgent need to discover new anticancer drugs. Mannose, an isomer of glucose, has been reported to have an anticancer effect on various tumors. However, the anticancer effect of mannose in PCa remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that mannose inhibits the proliferation and promotes the apoptosis of PCa cells in vitro, and mannose was observed to have an anticancer effect in mice without harming their health. Accumulation of intracellular mannose simultaneously decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, increased mitochondrial and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in PCa cells. Mannose treatment of PCa cells induced changes in mitochondrial morphology, caused dysregulated expression of the fission protein, such as fission, mitochondrial 1 (FIS1), and enhanced the expression of proapoptotic factors, such as BCL2-associated X (Bax) and BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 (Bak). Furthermore, lower expression of mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI), the key enzyme in mannose metabolism, indicated poorer prognosis in PCa patients, and downregulation of MPI expression in PCa cells enhanced the anticancer effect of mannose. This study reveals the anticancer effect of mannose in PCa and its clinical significance in PCa patients.

Keywords: mannose; mannose phosphate isomerase; metabolism; mitochondria; prostate cancer

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