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Prevalence of gene mutations in a Chinese 46,XY disorders of sex development cohort detected by targeted next-generation sequencing

Bing-Qing Yu, Zhao-Xiang Liu, Yin-Jie Gao, Xi Wang, Jiang-Feng Mao, Min Nie, Xue-Yan Wu

NHC Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China

Correspondence: Dr. M Nie (nm_pumch@aliyun.com) or Dr. XY Wu (wsheyan@vip.sina.com)



46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) is characterized by incomplete masculinization genitalia, with gonadal dysplasia and with/without the presence of Müllerian structures. At least 30 genes related to 46,XY DSD have been found. However, the clinical phenotypes of patients with different gene mutations overlap, and accurate diagnosis relies on gene sequencing technology. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of pathogenic mutations in a Chinese cohort with 46,XY DSD by the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Eighty-seven 46,XY DSD patients were enrolled from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (Beijing, China). A total of fifty-four rare variants were identified in 60 patients with 46,XY DSD. The incidence of these rare variants was approximately 69.0% (60/87). Twenty-five novel variants and 29 reported variants were identified. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines, thirty-three variants were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants and 21 variants were assessed as variants of uncertain significance. The overall diagnostic rate was about 42.5% based on the pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants. Androgen receptor (AR), steroid 5-alpha-reductase 2 (SRD5A2) and nuclear receptor subfamily 5 Group A member 1 (NR5A1) gene variants were identified in 21, 13 and 13 patients, respectively. The incidence of these three gene variants was about 78.3% (47/60) in patients with rare variants. It is concluded that targeted NGS is an effective method to detect pathogenic mutations in 46,XY DSD patients and AR, SRD5A2, and NR5A1 genes were the most common pathogenic genes in our cohort.

Keywords: 46, XY disorders of sex development; mutations; targeted next-generation sequencing

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