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Abstract

Volume 11, Issue 1 (January 2009) 11, 81–87; 10.1038/aja.2008.9

Management of locally advanced prostate cancer

Heather Payne

Department of Oncology, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, London NW1 2PG, UK

Correspondence: Dr Heather Payne, Department of Oncology, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, 250 Euston Road, London NW1 2PG, UK. Fax: +44-20-7224-5706 E-mail: heather_payne@blueyonder.co.uk

Received 17 September 2008; Accepted 19 September 2008; Published online 1 December 2008

Abstract

The management of all stages of prostate cancer is an increasingly complex process and involves a variety of available treatments and many disciplines. Despite prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, the presentation of prostate cancer at a locally advanced stage is common in the UK, accounting for one-third of all new cases. There is no universally accepted definition of locally advanced prostate cancer; the term is loosely used to encompass a spectrum of disease profiles that show high-risk features. Men with high-risk prostate cancer generally have a significant risk of disease progression and cancer-related death if left untreated. High-risk patients, including those with locally advanced disease, present two specific challenges. There is a need for local control as well as a need to treat any microscopic metastases likely to be present but undetectable until disease progression. The optimal treatment approach will therefore often necessitate multiple modalities. The exact combinations, timing and intensity of treatment continue to be strongly debated. Management decisions should be made after all treatments have been discussed by a multidisciplinary team (including urologists, oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and nurse specialists) and after the balance of benefits and side effects of each therapy modality has been considered by the patient with regard to his own individual circumstances. This article reviews the current therapy options.

Keywords: antiandrogens, prostate cancer, prostatectomy

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