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Abstract

Volume 22, Issue 5 (September 2020) 22, 485–492; 10.4103/aja.aja_120_19

Anti-lysyl oxidase combined with a vacuum device induces penile lengthening by remodeling the tunica albuginea

Tao Li1,2, Fu-Dong Fu1, Chang-Jing Wu1, Feng Qin1, Run Wang3, Jiu-Hong Yuan1,2

1 Andrology Laboratory, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
2 Department of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
3 Department of Urology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Correspondence: Dr. JH Yuan (jiuhongyuan2107@163.com)

Date of Submission 23-Dec-2018 Date of Acceptance 20-Aug-2019 Date of Web Publication 15-Nov-2019

Abstract

This study aimed to explore whether and how anti-lysyl oxidase (anti-LOX) combined with a vacuum device (VD) could promote penile lengthening and to evaluate the effect on erectile function. This study was performed on four groups of adult rats: control, anti-LOX, VD (negative pressure value of −300 mmHg), and anti-LOX + VD. Penile length was measured by a modified VD method and verified on exposed length data. Intracavernous pressure (ICP) and maximum ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP) ratio were recorded to assess erectile function. For corpus cavernosum, LOX activity and concentrations of pyridinoline, desmosine, hydroxyproline, and elastin were analyzed; transmission electron microscope and Hart's elastin staining were performed to monitor microstructural changes. Anti-LOX and VD significantly lengthened the penis by 10.8% (3.75 mm) and 8.2% (2.48 mm) compared with the control group, respectively, while anti-LOX + VD achieved the longest penile size (40.58 ± 0.40 mm) which was 17.4% longer than the control group (34.58 ± 0.54 mm). After 1-week washout, no penile retraction was observed. Meanwhile, exposed penile length data confirmed that the penis in the anti-LOX + VD group was also significantly longer. Anti-LOX inhibited LOX activity to reduce pyridinoline level, which led the penile tunica albuginea remodeling. However, it had no effect on hydroxyproline, desmosine, and elastin levels. Moreover, anti-LOX had no impact on erectile function, which was determined by ICP and ICP/MAP ratio. These results suggest that anti-LOX elongates the penis by reducing pyridinoline, which induces tunica albuginea remodeling. This lengthening effect was more obvious when combined with a VD. All procedures had no impact on erectile function.

Keywords: anti-lysyl oxidase; crosslinking; penile lengthening; tunica albuginea remodeling; vacuum device

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