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Volume 24, Issue 5 (September 2022) 24, 503–508; 10.4103/aja2021102

Predictive factors for successful sperm retrieval by microdissection testicular sperm extraction in men with nonobstructive azoospermia and a history of cryptorchidism

Xing-Lin Chen, Yu-Ang Wei, Xiao-Han Ren, Xu Zhang, Guang-Yao Li, Zhong-Wen Lu, Dong Zhang, Chao Qin, Shi-Feng Su

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210009, China

Correspondence: Dr. SF Su (shifengsu@139.com) or Dr. C Qin (qinchao@njmu.edu.cn)

Date of Submission 01-May-2021 Date of Acceptance 11-Nov-2021 Date of Web Publication 14-Jan-2022


This study aims to explore the factors influencing the success rate of the microdissection testicular sperm extraction (Micro-TESE) in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) and cryptorchidism. Clinical data of 162 patients with cryptorchidism who underwent Micro-TESE due to infertility from December 2015 to May 2020 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were analyzed retrospectively. In the univariate analysis, significant differences in the age of patient at the time of orchidopexy (median [interquartile range, IQR]: 7.0 [4.0–11.0] years vs 11.5 [9.0–14.5] years, P < 0.001), interval between orchidopexy and Micro-TESE (mean ± standard deviation: 17.5 ± 5.0 years vs 14.4 ± 4.4 years, P < 0.001), severity of cryptorchidism (unilateral [62.8%] vs bilateral [31.6%], P < 0.001; location of cryptorchidism, intra-abdominal [27.3%] vs inguinal [44.8%] vs suprascrotal [66.7%], P < 0.001), volume of the dominant testis (median [IQR]: 17.00 [15.00–19.00] ml vs 14.50 [11.75–16.25] ml, P < 0.001), and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; P = 0.004) and testosterone (P = 0.006) were observed between the successful and failed sperm extraction groups. After conducting the multivariate analysis, four of these factors, including unilateral/bilateral cryptorchidism (P < 0.001), location of cryptorchidism (P = 0.032), age of orchidopexy (P < 0.001), and dominant testicular volume, were adopted in the clinical prediction model to evaluate preoperatively the success rate of Micro-TESE for patients with NOA and cryptorchidism. The likelihood of successful sperm retrieval by Micro-TESE in men with NOA and cryptorchidism increased in patients with mild forms of cryptorchidism.

Keywords: azoospermia; cryptorchidism; microdissection testicular sperm extraction; predictive

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