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Abstract

Volume 24, Issue 2 (March 2022) 24, 201–206; 10.4103/aja202158

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound as a valuable imaging modality for characterizing testicular lesions

Jie Yu1, Xin-Hui Jiang2, Lian-Fang Du1, Min Bai1, Zhao-Jun Li1, Qiu-Sheng Shi1, Qi Jiang3, Fan Li1

1 Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 201620, China
2 Department of Medical Ultrasound, Shanghai Baoshan Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai 201999, China
3 Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080, China

Correspondence: Dr. F Li (medicineli@163.com) or Dr. Q Jiang (jqjq2007@126.com)

Date of Submission 18-Dec-2020 Date of Acceptance 22-Jul-2021 Date of Web Publication 14-Sep-2021

Abstract

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a new form of ultrasound (US) that can dynamically display microvessels in a highly sensitive manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CEUS for characterizing testicular lesions in comparison with conventional US. Forty-seven patients with testicular lesions were enrolled. The histopathology results revealed that 31 cases were neoplastic (11 cases of seminomas, 8 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, 8 lymphomas, 2 Leydig cell tumors, and 2 nonspecific tumors), and 16 cases were nonneoplastic (8 cases of infarctions, 3 epidermoid cysts, and 5 inflammation). The indicators of shallow lobulated morphology and cystic-solid echogenicity on conventional US were suggestive of germ cell tumors. More indicators on CEUS were found to be useful for characterizing testicular lesions. All the neoplastic lesions showed hyperenhancement on CEUS. Moreover, germ cell tumors presented with heterogeneous enhancement (73.7%, 14/19), a twisted blood vessel pattern, rapid wash-in and wash-out, and peripheral rim hyperenhancement signs. Lymphoma was characterized by nonbranching linear vessel patterns (87.5%, 7/8), rapid wash-in and slow wash-out. In nonneoplastic lesions, infarction and epidermoid cysts showed no enhancement, and abscesses were observed with marginal irregular enhancement. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEUS for differentiating between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were 100%, 93.8%, and 97.9%, respectively, and these values were higher than those for conventional US (90.3%, 62.5%, and 80.9%, respectively). CEUS can sensitively reflect the microvascular perfusion in testicular lesions and offers high accuracy for characterizing them.

Keywords: characterization; contrast-enhanced ultrasound; diagnosis; testicular neoplasms; ultrasound

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