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Volume 25, Issue 3 (May 2023) 25, 410–415; 10.4103/aja202276

Transrectal ultrasound examination of prostate cancer guided by fusion imaging of multiparametric MRI and TRUS: avoiding unnecessary mpMRI-guided targeted biopsy

Guang Xu1,2, Jun-Heng Li3, Li-Hua Xiang1,2, Bin Yang4, Yun-Chao Chen5, Yi-Kang Sun1,2,6, Bing-Hui Zhao3, Jian Wu1,2, Li-Ping Sun1,2, Hui-Xiong Xu6

1 Department of Medical Ultrasound, Center of Minimally Invasive Treatment for Tumor, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital; Ultrasound Research and Education Institute, Clinical Research Center for Interventional Medicine, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072, China
    2 Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultrasound Diagnosis and Treatment, Shanghai 200072, China
    3 Department of Radiology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072, China
    4 Department of Urology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072, China
    5 Department of Medical Ultrasound, Xiang'an Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361101, China
    6 Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China

Correspondence: Dr. J Wu (apagar@126.com)



The purpose of this study was to explore transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings of prostate cancer (PCa) guided by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and to improve the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) system for avoiding unnecessary mpMRI-guided targeted biopsy (TB). From January 2018 to October 2019, fusion mpMRI and TRUS-guided biopsies were performed in 162 consecutive patients. The study included 188 suspicious lesions on mpMRI in 156 patients, all of whom underwent mpMRI-TRUS fusion imaging-guided TB and 12-core transperineal systematic biopsy (SB). Univariate analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between TRUS features and PCa. Then, logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was performed to determine the independent predictors of PCa and obtain the fitted probability of PCa. The detection rates of PCa based on TB alone, SB alone, and combined SB and TB were 55.9% (105 of 188), 52.6% (82 of 156), and 62.8% (98 of 156), respectively. The significant predictors of PCa on TRUS were hypoechogenicity (odds ratio [OR]: 9.595, P = 0.002), taller-than-wide shape (OR: 3.539, P = 0.022), asymmetric vascular structures (OR: 3.728, P = 0.031), close proximity to capsule (OR: 3.473, P = 0.040), and irregular margins (OR: 3.843, P = 0.041). We propose subgrouping PI-RADS score 3 into categories 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3d based on different numbers of TRUS predictors, as the creation of PI-RADS 3a (no suspicious ultrasound features) could avoid 16.7% of mpMRI-guided TBs. Risk stratification of PCa with mpMRI-TRUS fusion imaging-directed ultrasound features could avoid unnecessary mpMRI-TBs.
    Keywords: fusion biopsy; multiparametric MRI; prostate cancer; transrectal ultrasound

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Asian Journal of Andrology CN 31-1795/R ISSN 1008-682X  Copyright © 2023  Shanghai Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences.  All rights reserved.