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Volume 12, Issue 5 (September 2010) 12, 677–689; 10.1038/aja.2010.56

Growth inhibition mediated by PSP94 or CRISP-3 is prostate cancer cell line specific

Bhakti R. Pathak, Ananya A. Breed, Vaishali H. Nakhawa, Dhanashree D. Jagtap, Smita D. Mahale

Division of Structural Biology, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Indian Council of Medical Research, Mumbai 400012, India

Correspondence: Dr Smita D. Mahale,smitamahale@hotmail.com

Received: 15 January 2010 Revised: 16 April 2010; Accepted: 1 June 2010 Published online: 2 August 2010


The prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) has been shown to interact with cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) in human seminal plasma. Interestingly, PSP94 expression is reduced or lost in the majority of the prostate tumours, whereas CRISP-3 expression is upregulated in prostate cancer compared with normal prostate tissue. To obtain a better understanding of the individual roles these proteins have in prostate tumourigenesis and the functional relevance of their interaction, we ectopically expressed either PSP94 or CRISP-3 alone or PSP94 along with CRISP-3 in three prostate cell lines (PC3, WPE1-NB26 and LNCaP) and performed growth inhibition assays. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to screen prostate cell lines for PSP94 and CRISP-3 expression. Mammalian expression constructs for human PSP94 and CRISP-3 were also generated and the expression, localization and secretion of recombinant protein were assayed by transfection followed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. The effect that ectopic expression of PSP94 or CRISP-3 had on cell growth was studied by clonogenic survival assay following transfection. To evaluate the effects of co-expression of the two proteins, stable clones of PC3 that expressed PSP94 were generated. They were subsequently transfected with a CRISP-3 expression construct and subjected to clonogenic survival assay. Our results showed that PSP94 and CRISP-3 could each induce growth inhibition in a cell line specific manner. Although the growth of CRISP-3-positive cell lines was inhibited by PSP94, growth inhibition mediated by CRISP-3 was not affected by the presence or absence of PSP94. This suggests that CRISP-3 may participate in PSP94-independent activities during prostate tumourigenesis.


β-microseminoprotein; CRISP-3; clonogenic survival assay; LNCaP; PC3; WPE1-NB26

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