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Abstract

Volume 15, Issue 3 (May 2013) 15, 333–339; 10.1038/aja.2013.6

Urinary biomarkers for prostate cancer: a review

Daphne Hessels1 and Jack A Schalken2

1 NovioGendix BV, Nijmegen, 6525 GA, The Netherlands
2 Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, 6500 HB, The Netherlands

Correspondence: Professor JA Schalken, (j.schalken@uro.umcn.nl)

Received 1 December 2012; Revised 7 January 2013; Accepted 8 January 2013; Advance online publication 25 March 2013

Abstract

Although the routine use of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has undoubtedly increased prostate cancer (PCa) detection, one of its main drawbacks is its lack of specificity. As a consequence, many men undergo unnecessary biopsies or treatments for indolent tumours. PCa-specific markers are needed for the early detection of the disease and the prediction of aggressiveness of a prostate tumour. Since PCa is a heterogeneous disease, a panel of tumour markers is fundamental for a more precise diagnosis. Several biomarkers are promising due to their specificity for the disease in tissue. However, tissue is unsuitable as a possible screening tool. Since urine can be easily obtained in a non-invasive manner, it is a promising substrate for biomarker testing. This article reviews the biomarkers for the non-invasive testing of PCa in urine.



Keywords:biomarkers; diagnosis; prostate cancer (PCa); urinary biomarkers; urine

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