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Volume 17, Issue 5 (September 2015) 17, 807–810; 10.4103/1008-682X.148721

Combined tests of prostate specific antigen and testosterone will improve diagnosis and monitoring the progression of prostate cancer

Weitao Song, Vikram Soni, Mohit Khera

Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA

Correspondence: Dr. M Khera (mkhera@bcm.edu)



Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has been widely used to screen men for prostate cancer (PCa) and to monitor PCa progression. However, more studies have shown that around 15% of men with low or normal PSA levels have PCa. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of androgen and PSA levels and to better understand the reason that some PCa patients have low serum PSA values. The in vitro data demonstrated that cultured LNCaP cells ceased to produce PSA after androgen withdrawal and resumed PSA production after androgen was re-added. The in vivo experiment results showed that 48% of PCa xenografts carrying mice have serum PSA level lower than 4 ng ml−1 . The serum PSA levels increased significantly with rises in testosterone (T) levels 1 week after T pellet implantation. These data indicated that the androgen is a key factor controlling the production of PSA. Low serum PSA levels in mice with PCa xenografts are associated with low serum T levels. Raising serum T levels in tumor caring mice will also significantly increase serum PSA level. This may have clinical implications when screening PSA in men, who have occult PCa.

Keywords: prostate cancer; prostate specific antigen; testosterone

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Asian Journal of Andrology CN 31-1795/R ISSN 1008-682X  Copyright © 2023  Shanghai Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences.  All rights reserved.