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Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2000) 2, 143–146;

Effect of smoking on semen quality of infertile men in Shandong, China

J.P. Zhang, Q.Y. Meng, Q. Wang, L.J. Zhang, Y.L. Mao, Z.X. Sun

Department of Histology/Embryology, Jining Medical College, Shandong 272113, China

Advance online publication 1 June 2000


Aim: To study the effect of smoking on the semen quality in infertile men in Shandong Province, China. Methods: Adult non-drinker males attending the infertility clinic, including 110 non-smokers and 191 smokers, were recruited for the study. Sixty-one fertile, non-smoker and non-drinker males, who had one or more children, served as the controls. The smokers were divided into subgroups according to the amount and duration of smoking. Semen parameters (semen volume and sperm density, viability, motility, and morphology) were examined and seminal plasma contents of Zn , Cu and superoxide dismutase (SOD) determined. Results: The semen volume and acidity, and the sperm density, viability and forward progression, as well as the seminal plasma contents of Zn, Cu and SOD were much lower in the medium, heavy and long-term smokers than in the non-smokers (P<0.01). The sperm density, viability and forward progression, and the seminal plasma Zn, Cu and SOD levels were negatively correlated with the amount and duration of cigarette smoking (P<0.01). Conclusion: Medium, heavy and long-term smoking adversely affected the semen quality in a population of men visiting the infertility clinic in Shandong, China.

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